Beginning in the late 1700s and intensifying in the early 1800s, members of the Five Tribes used enslaved black women and men as domestic and agricultural labourers. 
 President James Madison signs a declaration of war against Britain, beginning the war between U.S. forces and the British, French and Native Americans over independence and territory expansion.
December 9 - Thomas Jefferson hosts first Ramadan celebration at the White House.



Andrew Jackson, along with U.S. forces and Native American allies attack Creek Indians who opposed American expansion and encroachment of their territory in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The Creeks cede more than 20 million acres of land after their loss.


The first Anglo settlers arrive in the Mexican state of Texas after being invited by the government of Mexico, which had recently declared its independence.


 53 enslaved Africans on board the ship the Amistad revolted against their captors, killing all but the ship's navigator, who sailed them to Long Island, N.Y., instead of their intended destination, Africa.


 Texas is officially annexed to the United States—which angers the Mexican government. Conflict over the official border line arises.


The Mexican-American ends. Through the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the US obtains 55% of the Mexican territory. Those who stayed were granted citizenship, causing the US to gain a sizable Mexican-American population


Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act, creating the Indian reservation system. Native Americans aren’t allowed to leave their reservations without permission.


With the Civil war Ending, The Emancipation Proclamation officially ends slavery. However, The liberated people face new challenges.


The Black Codes are passed by all white confederates, limiting the rights of the newly freed people. The Ku Klux Klan is also formed in TEnnessee.


The 14th Amendment is ratified, redefining American citizenship. This overturns the Dredd Scot decision. pt of intersectionality


The 15th Amendment is ratified, giving African American Men the right to vote.


Gold discovered in South Dakota’s Black Hills drives U.S. troops to ignore a treaty and invade the territory.


In the Battle of Little Bighorn, also known as “Custer’s Last Stand,” Lieutenant Colonel George Custer’s troops fight Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne warriors, led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, along Little Bighorn River. Custer and his troops are defeated and killed, increasing tensions between Native Americans and white Americans.


The era of Reconstruction ends. A deal is made with southern democratic leaders which makes Rutherford B. Hayes president in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, and puts an end to efforts to protect the civil rights of African Americans


The first students attend Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania, the country’s first off-reservation boarding school. The school, created by Civil War veteran Richard Henry Pratt, is designed to assimilate Native American students.


 President Grover Cleveland signs the Dawes Act, giving the president the authority to divide up land allotted to Native Americans in reservations to individuals.


Segregation has become the way of life across the U.S. South. Plessey v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” is constitutional.